# Sharp tools make good work

--The Analects of Confucius

Geodetector

Software for measure and attribution of spatial stratified heterogeneity (SSH)

# 1.        Introduction

Spatial Stratified Heterogeneity (SSH) refers to the phenomena that the within strata are more similar than the between strata. Examples are landuse types and climate zones in spatial data, seasons and years in time series, occupations, age groups, incomes strata. SH offers windows for human beings to understand the universe since Aristotle (384–322 BC).

Geodetector, i.e. Geographical Detector, is a statistical tool to measure SH and to explore the determinants of SH (Fig. 1): (1) measure and find SH among data; (2) test the coupling between two variables Y and X, according to their SHs, without assumption of linearity of the association; and (3) investigate interaction between two explanatory variables X1 and X2 to a response variable Y, without any specific form of interaction such as the assumed product in econometrics (Fig. 2). Each of the tasks can be accomplished by the Geodetector q-statistic:

Fig. 1. Principle of Geodetector

(The bottom map, the color indicates the values of a population Y. The top map, the population Y is stratified into strata {h}; the terms “stratification” and “partition” are equivalent, can be either classification or zonation. Between the two maps is the equation q(Y|{h}), in which the numerator is the summation of the within strata variance and the denominator is the pooled variance.)

where N and s2 stand for the number of units and the variance of Y in a study area, respectively; the population Y is composed of L strata (h = 1, 2, …, L). The strata of Y (red polygons in Fig.1) are a partition of Y, either by itself h(Y) or by an explanatory variable X which is a categorical h(X). X should be stratified if it is a numerical variable, the number of strata L might be 2-10 or more, according to prior knowledge or a classification algorithm. [(N-L)q]/[(L-1)(1-q)] ~ F(L-1, N-L, g), where g is a non central parameter (Wang et al 2016).

The strata of Y (red polygons in Fig.1) are a partition of Y, either by Y itself or by an explanatory variable X. X is a categorical variable or should be stratified if it is a numerical variable. The number of strata L might be 2-10 or more, according to prior knowledge or a classification algorithm. The terms “stratified heterogeneity (SH)”, “stratification”, “classification” and “partition” are equivalent. SH can be either spatial (spatial stratified heterogeneity, SSH) or aspatial such as time and any attributes.

Interpretation of q value (Fig.1).

The value of q is strictly within [0, 1].

(1)  If Y is stratified by Y itself, then q = 0 indicates that Y is absent of SH; q = 1 indicates that Y is SH perfectly; 100q% measures the degree of SH of Y.

(2)  If Y is stratified by an explanatory variable X, then q = 0 indicates that there is no coupling between Y and X; q = 1 indicates that Y is completely determined by X; X explains 100q% of Y. Please notice that the q-statistic measures the association between X and Y, both linearly and nonlinearly.

Geodetector q statistic helps understand spatial confounding, sample bias and overfitting.

(1)    Confounding arises if a global model was applied to a SH population, leading to statistical insignificance. The problem can be simply avoided if SH is identified (by Geodetector q statistic) then modelling in the strata, separately.

(2)    A sample would be biased if a population is SH and the sample do not cover all strata. The problem can be solved if SH is identified (by Geodetector q statistic) then apply bias remedy models such as Heckman regression and Bshade method.

(3)    Local models aim to overcome heterogeneity but often suffer overfitting and too many parameters to interpret. The problems can be avoided if modelling in strata or stratifying the outputs of a local model then interpreting the stratified parameters.

Functions of Geodetector:

(1)    The risk detector maps response variable in strata: Y(X);

(2)    The factor detector q-statistic measures the degree of SH of a variable Y; and the determinant power of an explanatory variable X of Y;

(3)    The ecological detector identifies the difference of the impacts between two explanatory variables X1 ~ X2;

(4)    The interaction detector reveals whether the risk factors X1 and X2 (and more X) have an interactive influence on a response variable Y (Fig.2).

Fig. 2. Interaction between explanatory variables X1 and X2 impacting on a response variable Y: q(Y|X1X2).

# 2.        Tutorial

The Geodetector software was developed using Excel and R, respectively. The tools are free of charge, freely downloadable, and easy to use, and were designed without any GIS plug-in components and with “one click” execution. Users can run the following demo, then simply replace the demo data in the software using your own data, click Run and you get results ! We henceforth describe Excel Geodetector software. R users can download the R Geodetector software in the following section “Download of Geodetector Software and Example Datasets”.

As a demo, neural-tube birth defects (NTD) Y and suspected risk factors or their proxies Xs in villages are provided, including data for the health effect layers “NTD prevalence” and environmental factor layers, “elevation”, “soil type”, and “watershed”. Their field names are defined as Y and X1, X2, X3 respectively.

(1)  Download the Excel Geodetector software (In the following section “Software and Examples Data Download”), one click to download any one of the three Examples, unzip the downloaded file, you will find an Excel file (this is Geodetector software with an Example dataset!) and double click the Excel file, Fig. 3 and Fig. 5 appear. Fig. 3 is the format of the input data for the Geodetector: each row denotes a sample unit (e.g. a village); the 1st column record the response variable Y; the 2nd and following columns denote partitions of Y or factors X, the latter were partitioned according to the similarity within strata.

(2)  Input your data into the Excel Geodetector software in the format of Fig. 3. Then go to Step 2.

Fig. 3. Input data in Excel and the execution interface

(Note: Y is numerical; X MUST be categorical, e.g. landuse types, seasons. If X is numerical it should be transformed to be categorical, e.g. GDP per capita is stratified into 5 strata)

(3)  If your data is in GIS format, as Fig. 4, please transform the GIS data into Excel data as Fig. 3.

Fig. 4. Data in GIS format

Step 2. Run Geodetector software

Only one operation interface was designed (Fig. 5). The function of the “Read Data” button is to load data; thus, when the button is clicked, all variables are listed in the “variables” list box. Then, disease and partition of Y or environmental factor variables are selected into their corresponding list boxes Y and X on the right of the interface. Finally, Geodetector is executed by clicking the “Run” button.

Fig. 5. User interface for Geodetector

# 3.        Output

Geodetector outputs results from the risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector, and interaction detector in four Excel spreadsheets (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6. Interface for Geodetector results

In the “Risk detector” sheet (Fig. 7), result information for each environmental risk factor is presented in two tables. The first table gives the average disease incidence in each stratum of a risk factor, the name of which is written at the top left of the table. The second table gives the statistically significant difference in the average disease incidence between two strata; if there is a significant difference, the corresponding value is “Y”, else it is “N”.

Fig. 7. Results of risk detector

The Fig. 8 shows the output format of the q values for each environmental risk factor, as given in the “Factor detector” sheet. The table header gives the names of the environmental risk factors, while the associated q values (q1, q2, …, qn) and their corresponding p values are presented in the row below.

Fig. 8. Results of factor detector

In the “Ecological detector” sheet (Fig. 9), results of the statistically significant differences between two environmental risk factors are presented. If Y(X1) (risk factor names in row) was significantly bigger than Y(X2) (risk factor names in column), the associated value is “Y”, while “N” expresses the opposite meaning.

Fig. 9. Results of ecological detector

The format of the results for the interaction detector is shown in Fig. 10.Interaction relationships” below the table represent the interaction relationship for the two factors. The relationship is defined in a coordinate axis. It has 5 intervals, including “(-min(q(x), q(y)))”,“(min(q(x), q(y)), max(q(x), q(y)))”, “(max(q(x), q(y)), q(x) + q(y))”,“q(x) + q(y)”,“( q(x) + q(y),+∞)”, and the interaction relationship is determined by the location of q(xÇy) in the 5 intervals (see Table 1).

Fig. 10. Results of interaction detector

Tab. 1. Interaction between Explanatory Variables (Xs)

 Graphical representation Description Interaction q(X1ÇX2) < Min(q(X1), q(X2)) Weaken, nonlinear Min(q(X1),q(X 2)) Max(q(X1), q(X2)) Enhance, bi- q(X1Ç X2) = q(X1)+ q(X2) Independent q(X1Ç X2) > q(X1)+ q(X2) Enhance, nonlinear

Legend

The software was developed using Excel 2007 and R, respectively. It is completely free. You can click any one of the following links to download the Geodetector software. The first three are Geodetector software in Excel: (1) click one and unzip the file, an Excel file appears; (2) click the Excel file to start the Geodetector, you may exercise the demo data; then (3) input your own data to get your own results.

# 5.  Citations. Geodetector can be cited as:

[1] Wang JF, Li XH, Christakos G, Liao YL, Zhang T, Gu X & Zheng XY. 2010. Geographical detectors-based health risk assessment and its application in the neural tube defects study of the Heshun region, China. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 24(1): 107-127.

[2] Wang JF, Zhang TL, Fu BJ. 2016. A measure of spatial stratified heterogeneity. Ecological Indicators 67: 250-256.

# 6.  Bibliography

2010 Wang JF, Li XH, Christakos G, Liao YL, Zhang T, Gu X & Zheng XY. 2010. Geographical detectors-based health risk assessment and its application in the neural tube defects study of the Heshun region, China. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 24(1): 107-127.

2016 Luo W, Jasiewicz J, Stepinski T, et al. 2016. Spatial association between dissection density and environmental factors over the entire conterminous United States. Geophysical Research Letters 43(2): 692-700.

2019 Zhang LQ, et al. 2019. Air pollution exposure associates with increased risk of neonatal jaundice. Nature Communications 10: 3741.

2019 Yin Q, et al. 2019. Mapping the increased minimum mortality temperatures in the context of global climate change. Nature Communications 10: 4640.

2020 Li JM, et al. 2020. Spatiotemporal trends and ecological determinants in maternal mortality ratios in 2,205 Chinese counties, 2010-2013: A Bayesian modelling analysis. PLoS Medicine 17(5): e1003114.

2021 Hu MG, et al. 2021. The risk of COVID-19 transmission in train passengers: an epidemiological and modelling study. Clinical Infectious Diseases 72(4): 604-610.

2021 Xu B, et al. 2021. Seasonal association between viral causes of hospitalized acute lower respiratory infections and meteorological factors in China: a retrospective study. Lancet Planet Health 5: e154–63.

2012 刘彦随，杨    . 2012. 中国县域城镇化的空间特征与形成机理. 地理学报 67(8):1011-1020.

2017 王劲峰，徐成东. 2017. 地理探测器：原理与展望. 地理学报 72(1): 116-134.

Tab. 2. Articles using Geodetector [Numbered]

 2022

# 2010

1.         Wang JF, Li XH, Christakos G, Liao YL, Zhang T, Gu X & Zheng XY. 2010. Geographical detectors-based health risk assessment and its application in the neural tube defects study of the Heshun region, China. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 24(1): 107-127.

2.         Liao YL,Wang JF, Wu JL, Driskell L, Wang WY, Zhang T, Gu X, Zheng XY. 2010. Spatial analysis of neural tube defects in a rural coal mining area. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 20(6): 439-450.

# 2011

3.         Hu Y, Wang JF, Li XH, Ren D, Zhu J. 2011. Geographical detector-based risk assessment of the under-five mortality in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China. PLoS ONE 6(6): e21427.

4.         Zou B, Wilson JG, Zhan FB, Zeng YN, Wu KJ. 2011. Spatial-temporal variations in regional ambient sulfur dioxide concentration and source-contribution analysis: A dispersion modeling approach. Atmospheric Environment 45: 4977-4985.

# 2012

5.         Gajos M. 2012. Geoinformation technologies in biomedicine and health care: review of scientific journals. E. Piętka and J. Kawa (Eds.): ITIB 2012, LNCS 7339: 510–524.

6.         Li LF, Wang JF, Wu J. 2012. A spatial model to predict the incidence of neural tube defects. BMC Public Health 12: 951.

7.         Wang JF, Hu Y. 2012. Environmental health risk detection with GeogDetector. Environmental Modelling & Software 33: 114-115.

8.         刘彦随,     , 2012. 中国县域城镇化的空间特征与形成机理. 地理学报 67(8): 1011-1020.

Liu YS, Yang R.2012.Spatial characteristics and formation mechanism of the county urbanization in China. Acta Geographica Sinica 67(8): 1011-1020.

# 2013

9.         Cao F, Ge Y, Wang JF. 2013. Optimal discretization for geographical detectors-based risk assessment. GIScience & Remote Sensing 50(1): 78-92.

10.     Li XW, Xie YF, Wang JF, Christakos G, Si JL, Zhao HN, Ding YQ, Li J. 2013. Influence of planting patterns on Fluoroquinolone residues in the soil of an intensive vegetable cultivation area in north China. Science of the Total Environment 458-460: 63-69.

11.     Lee WC. 2013. Assessing causal mechanistic interactions: a peril ratio index of synergy based on multiplicativity. PLoS ONE 8(6): e67424. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067424.

12.     Raghavan RK, Brenner KM, Harrington Jr JA, Higgins JJ, Harkin KR. 2013. Spatial scale effects in environmental risk-factor modelling for diseases. Geospatial Health 7(2): 169-182.

13.     Wang JF, Wang Y, Zhang J, Christakos G, Sun JL, Liu X, Lu L, Fu XQ, Shi YQ, Li XM. 2013. Spatiotemporal transmission and determinants of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Hongta District, China. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 7(3): e2112.

14.     Wang JF, Xu CD, Tong SL, Chen HY, Yang WZ. 2013. Spatial dynamic patterns of hand-foot-mouth disease in the People’s Republic of China. Geospatial Health 7(2): 381-390.

# 2014

15.     Bai HX, Ge Y, Wang JF, Li DY, Liao YL, Zheng XY. 2014. A method for extracting rules from spatial data based on rough fuzzy sets. Knowledge-Based Systems 57: 28-40.

16.     Hu Y, Gao J, Chi M, Luo C, Lynn H, Sun LQ, Tao B, Wang DC, Zhang ZJ, Jiang QW. 2014. Spatio-temporal patterns of schistosomiasis Japonica in lake and marshland areas in China: the effect of snail habitats. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91(3): 547–554.

17.     Hu Z, Tang GA, Lu GN. 2014. A new geographical language: a perspective of GIS. Journal of Geographical Sciences 24(3): 560-576.

18.     Huang JX, Wang JF, Bo YC, Xu CD, Hu MG. 2014. Identification of health risks of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in China using the Geographical Detector Technique. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11: 3407-3423.

19.     Luo W. 2014. Impact cratering as a major factor controlling valley dissection density on MARS - a geographical detector approach. 45th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 2580.pdf.

20.     Qian Q, Zhao J, Fang LQ, Zhou H, Zhang WJ, Wei L, Yang H, Yin WW, Cao WC, Li Q. 2014. Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. BMC Infectious Diseases 14: 382.

21.     Ren Y, Deng LY, Zuo SD, et al. 2014. Geographical modeling of spatial interaction between human activity and forest connectivity in an urban landscape of southeast China. Landscape Ecology 29(10): 1741-1758.

22.     Wu JL, Zhang CS, Pei LJ, Chen G, Zheng XY. 2014. Association between risk of birth defects occurring level and arsenic concentrations in soils of Lvliang, Shanxi province of China. Environmental Pollution 191: 1-7.

23.     Xu EQ, Zhang HQ. 2014. Characterization and interaction of driving factors in karst rocky desertification: a case study from Changshun, China. Solid Earth 5: 1329-1340.

24.     蔡芳芳，濮励杰. 2014. 南通市城乡建设用地演变时空特征与形成机理. 资源科学 36(4): 0731-0740.

Cai FF, Pu LJ. 2014. Spatial-Temporal characteristics and formation mechanism of Urban-Rural construction land in Nantong City. Resources Science 36(4): 0731-0740.

25.         悦，蔡建明，任周鹏，杨振山. 2014. 基于地理探测器的国家级经济技术开发区经济增长率空间分异及影响因素. 地理科学进展 33(5): 657-666.

Ding Y, Cai JM, Ren ZP, Yang ZS. 2014. Spatial disparities of economic growth rate of China’s National-level ETDZs and their determinants based on geographical detector analysis. Progress in Geography 33(5): 657-666.

26.         丹，舒晓波，尧    波，曹安庆. 2014. 江西省县域人均粮食占有量的时空格局演变. 地域研究与开发 33(4): 157-162.

Hu D, Shu XB, Yao B, Cao QA. 2014. The evolvement of spatial-temporal pattern of per capita grain possession in counties of Jiangxi Province. Areal Research And Development 33(4): 157-162.

27.     李成悦，王    腾，周    . 2014. 湖北省区域经济格局时空演化及其影响因素分析. 发展研究

Li CY, Wang T, Zhou Y. 2014. The evolvement of Spatial-Temporal and determinants of regional economic patterns in Hubei Province. Development Research 2014(1): 47-51.

28.     倪书华. 2014. 空间统计学及其在公共卫生领域中的应用. 汕头大学学报（自然科学版）29(4): 61-67.

Ren SH. 2014. Spatial statistics and its application to the field of public health. Journal of Shantou University(Natural Science) 29(4): 61-67.

29.     通拉嘎，徐新良，付    颖，魏凤华. 2014. 地理环境因子对螺情影响的探测分析. 地理科学进展 33(5): 625-635.

Tong LG, Xu XL, Fu Y, Wei FH. 2014. Impact of environmental factors on snail distribution using geographical detector model. Progress in Geography 33(5): 625-635.

30.     魏凤娟，李江风，刘艳中. 2014. 湖北县域土地整治新增耕地的时空特征及其影响因素分析. 农业工程学报 30(14): 267-275.

Wei FJ, Li JF, Liu YZ.2014. Spatial-temporal characteristics and impact factors of newly increased farmland by land consolidation in Hubei province at county level. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 30(14): 267-276.

31.         ,  石培基. 2014. 甘肃省县域城镇化地域差异及形成机理. 干旱区地理 37(4): 838-845.

Yang B, Shi PJ. 2014. Geographical features and formation mechanism of county level urbanization in Gansu Province. Arid Land Geography 37(4): 838-845.

32.     俞佳根，叶世康. 2014. 空间视角下中国对外直接投资与产业结构升级水平研究. 商业经济研究 34: 127-128.

Yu JG, Ye SK.2014. Outward foreign direct investment and industrial structure upgrade level from the perspective of spatial in China. Journal of Commercial Economics 34: 127-128.

# 2015

33.     Chen YH, Ge Y, Heuvelink GBM, Hu JL, Jiang Y. 2015. Hybrid constraints of pure and mixed pixels for soft-then-hard super-resolution mapping with multiple shifted images. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 8(5): 2040-2052.

34.     Hu Y, Bergquist R, Lynn H, Gao FH, Wang QZ, Zhang SQ, Li R, Sun LQ, Xia CC, Xiong CL, Zhang ZJ, Jiang QW. 2015. Sandwich mapping of schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China. Geospatial Health 10: 324.

35.     Hu Y, Li R, Bergquist R, Lynn H, Gao FH, Wang QZ, Zhang AQ, Sun LQ, Zhang ZJ, Jiang QW. 2015. Spatio-temporal transmission and environmental determinants of schistosomiasis Japonica in Anhui Province, China. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 9(2): e0003470. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003470.

36.     Lee WC. 2015. Testing for sufficient-cause gene-environment interactions under the assumptions of independence and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. American Journal of Epidemiology 182(1): 9–16.

37.     Shen J, Zhang N, Gexi geduren, He B, Liu CY, Li Y, Zhang HY, Chen XY, Lin H. 2015. Construction of a GeogDetector-based model system to indicate the potential occurrence of grasshoppers in Inner Mongolia steppe habitats. Bulletin of Entomological Research 105: 335-346.

38.     Yang R, Liu YS, Long HL, Qiao LY. 2015. Spatio-temporal characteristics of rural settlements and land use in the Bohai Rim of China. Journal of Geographical Sciences 25(5): 559-572.

39.     Zhu H, Liu JM, Chen C, Lin J, Tao H. 2015. A spatial-temporal analysis of urban recreational business districts: A case study in Beijing, China. Journal of Geographical Sciences 25(12): 1521-1536.

40.     毕硕本,   , 陈昌春, 杨鸿儒,    . 2015. 地理探测器在史前聚落人地关系研究中的应用与分析. 地理科学进展 34(1): 118-127.

Bi SB, Ji H, Chen CC, Yang HR, Shen X.2015.Application of geographical detector in human-environment relationship study of prehistoric settlements. Progress in Geography 34(1): 118-127

41.     崔日明,  俞佳根. 2015. 基于空间视角的中国对外直接投资与产业结构升级水平研究. 福建论坛 (人文社会科学版) 2015(2): 26-33.

Cui RM, Yu JG.2015. Outward foreign direct investment and industrial structure upgrade level from the perspective of spatial in China. Fujian Tribune (The Humanities & Social Sciences Monthly) 2015(2): 26-33.

42.     李一凡，王卷乐，高孟绪. 2015. 自然疫源性疾病地理环境因子探测及风险预测研究综述. 地理科学进展 34(7): 926-935.

Li YF, Wang JL, Gao MX. 2015. A review of geographical and environmental factor detection and risk prediction of natural focus diseases. Progress in Geography 34(7): 926-935.

43.     徐秋蓉 郑新奇. 2015. 一种基于地理探测器的城镇扩展影响机理分析法. 测绘学报 44 S0: 96-101.

Xu QR, Zheng XQ.2015. Analysis of influencing mechanism of urban growth using geographical detector. Acta Geodaetica at Cartographica Sinica 44(S0): 96-101.

44.        , 刘彦随, 龙花楼, 陈呈奕地理研究 34(6): 1077-1087.

Yang R, Liu YS, Long HL, Chen CY. 2015. Spatial-temporal characteristics of rural residential land use change and spatial directivity identification based on grid in the Bohai Rim in China. Geographical Research 34(6): 1077-1087.

45.         佳，刘吉平. 2015. 基于地理探测器的东北地区气温变化影响因素定量分析. 湖北农业科学 54(19): 4682-4687.

Yu J, Liu JP.2015. Quantitative Analysis with Geographical Detector on the influence factor of temperature variation in Northeast China. Hubei Agricultural Sciences 54(19): 4682-4687.

46.     湛东升, 张文忠, 余建辉,   , 党云晓. 2015. 基于地理探测器的北京市居民宜居满意度影响机理. 地理科学进展 34(8): 966-975.

Zhan DS, Zhang WZ, Yu JH, Meng B, Dang XY.2015. Analysis of influencing mechanism of residents’ livability satisfaction in Beijing using geographical detector. Progress in Geography 34(8): 966-975.

47.         , 任志远. 2015. 基于Whittaker滤波的陕西省植被物候特征. 中国沙漠 45(4): 901-906.

Zhang H, Ren ZY.2015. Remote sensing analysis of vegetation phenology characteristics in Shanxi Province based on Whittaker smoother method. Journal of Desert Research 35(4): 901-906.

48.         , 刘家明,    ,   ,   . 2015. 北京城市休闲商务区的时空分布特征与成因. 地理学报 70(8): 1215-1228.

Zhu H, Liu JM, Tao H, Li G, Wang R.2015.Temporal-spatial pattern and contributing factors of urban RBDs in Beijing. Arta Geographica Sinica 70(8): 1215-1228.

# 2016

49.     Chen K, Ni MJ, Cai MG, Wang J, Huang DR, Chen HR, Wang X, Liu MY. 2016. Optimization of a coastal environmental monitoring network based on the Kriging method: a case study of Quanzhou Bay, China. BioMed Research International. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7137310.

50.     Du Z, Xu X, Zhang H, Wu Z, Liu Y. 2016. Geographical detector-based identification of the impact of major determinants on aeolian desertification risk. PLoS ONE 11(3): e0151331.

51.     Fan LX, Wu EQ, Liu J, Qu XC, Ning BA, Liu Y. 2016. Distribution Characteristics of Spermophilus dauricus in Manchuria City in China in 2015 through “3S” Technology. Biomedical Environmental Sciences 29(8): 603-608.

52.     Fei XF, Wu JP, Liu QM, Ren YJ, Lou ZH. 2015. Spatiotemporal analysis and risk assessment of typhoid cancer in Hangzhou, China. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Analysis 30: 2155–2168.

53.     Fei XF, Wu JP, Liu QM, Ren YJ, Lou ZH. 2015. Spatiotemporal analysis and risk assessment of thyroid cancer in Hangzhou, China. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 30: 2155–2168.

54.     Ju HR, Zhang ZX, Zuo LJ, Wang JF, Zhang SR, Wang X, Zhao XL. 2016. Driving forces and their interactions of built-up land expansion based on the geographical detector – a case study of Beijing, China. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 30(11): 2188–2207.

55.     Liang P, Yang XP. 2016. Catena 145: 321-333.

56.     Liao YL, Zhang Y, He L, Wang JF, Liu X, Zhang NX, Xu B. 2016. Temporal and spatial analysis of neural tube defects and detection of geographical factors in Shanxi Province, China. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0150332. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150332.

57.     Lou CR, Liu HY, Li YF, Li YL. 2016. Socioeconomic drivers of PM2.5 in the accumulation phase of air pollution episodes in the Yangtze river delta of China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13: 928.

58.     Luo W, Jasiewicz J, Stepinski T, Wang JF, Xu CD, Cang XZ. 2016. Spatial association between dissection density and environmental factors over the entire conterminous United States. Geophysical Research Letters 43(2): 692-700.

59.     Ren J, Gao BB, Fan HM, Zhang ZH, Zhang Y, Wang JF. 2016. Assessment of pollutant mean concentrations in the Yangtze estuary based on MSN theory. Marine Pollution Bulletin 113: 216-223.

60.     Ren Y, Deng LY, Zuo SD. Song XD, Liao YL, Xu CD, Chen Q, Hua LZ, Li ZW. 2016. Quantifying the influences of various ecological factors on land surface temperature of urban forests. Environmental Pollution 216: 519-529.

61.     Tan JT, Zhang PY, Lo KV, Li J, Liu SW. 2016. The urban transition performance of resource-based cities in northeast China. Sustainability 8: 1022; doi:10.3390/su8101022.

62.     Todorova Y, Lincheva S, Yotinov I, Topalova Y. 2016. Water Resources Management 30: 4171-4184.

63.     Wang JF, Zhang TL, Fu BJ. 2016. A measure of spatial stratified heterogeneity. Ecological Indicators 67: 250-256.

64.     Wang XG, Xi JC, Yang DY, Chen T. 2016. Spatial differentiation of rural touristization and its determinants in China: a geo-detector-based case study of Yesanpo scenic area. Journal of Resources and Ecology 7(6): 464-471.

65.     Wu RN, Zhang JQ, Bao YH, Zhang F. 2016. Geographical detector model for influencing factors of industrial sector carbon dioxide emissions in Inner Mongolia, China. Sustainability 8(2): 149.

66.     Yang R, Xu Q, Long HL. 2016. Spatial distribution characteristics and optimized reconstruction analysis of China ’s rural settlements during the process of rapid urbanization. Journal of Rural Studies 47: 413-424.

67.     Zhang N, Jiang YC, Liu CY, Shen J. 2016. Ecological Modelling 329: 5-17.

68.     Zhang T, Yin F, Zhou T, Zhang XY & Li XX. 2016. Multivariate time series analysis on the dynamic relationship between Class B notifiable diseases and gross domestic product (GDP) in China. Scientific Reports 6: 29.

69.     Zhao XY, Cai J, Feng DL, Bai YQ, Xu B. 2016. Meteorological influence on the 2009 influenza a (H1N1) pandemic in mainland China. Environmental Earth Sciences 75: 878.

70.     陈昌玲，张全景，吕    晓，黄贤金. 2016. 江苏省耕地占补过程的时空特征及驱动机理. 经济地理 36(4): 155-163.

Chen CL, Zhang QJ, Lv X, Huang XJ. 2016. Analysis on spatial-temporal characteristics and driving mechanisms of cropland occupation and supplement in Jiangsu Province. Economic Geography 36(4): 155-163.

71.     陈业滨，李卫红，黄玉兴，李晓歌，华家敏. 2016. 广州市登革热时空传播特征及影响因素. 热带地理 36(5): 767-775.

Chen YB, Li WH, Huang YX, Hua JM. 2016. Spatio-temporal spreading features and the influence factors of Dengue Fever in downtown Guangzhou. Tropical Geography 36(5):767-775.

72.     李俊刚，闫庆武，熊集兵，黄园园. 2016. 贵州省煤矿区植被指数变化及其影响因子分析. 生态与农村环境学报 32(3): 374-378.

Li JG, Yan QW, Xiong JB, Huang YY. 2016. Variation of vegetation index in coal mining areas in Guizhou Province and its affecting factors. Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment 32(3): 374-378.

73.         涛，廖和平，褚远恒，孙 海，李 靖，杨 . 2016. 重庆市农地非农化空间非均衡及形成机理. 自然资源学报 31(11): 1844-1857.

Li T, Liao HP, Zhu YH, Sun H, Li J, Yang W.2016.Spatial disequilibrium and its formation mechanism of farmland conversion in Chongqing. Journal of Natural Resources 31(11): 1844-1857.

74.     李媛媛，徐成东，肖革新，罗广祥. 2016. 京津唐地区细菌性痢疾社会经济影响时空分析. 地球信息科学学报 18(12): 1615-1623.

Li YY, Xu CD, Xiao GX, Luo GX. 2016. Spatial-temporal analysis of social-economic factors of Bacillary dysentery in Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan,China. Journal of Geo-information Science 18(12): 1615-1623.

75.         颖，王心源，周俊明. 2016. 基于地理探测器的大熊猫生境适宜度评价模型及验证. 地球信息科学学报 18(6): 767-778.

Liao Y, Wang XY, Zhou JM.2016.Suitability assessment and validation of giant panda habitat based on Geographical Detector. Journal of Geo-information Science 18(6): 767-778.

76.     陶海燕，潘中哲，潘茂林，卓  莉，徐  勇，鹿  . 2016. 广州大都市登革热时空传播混合模式. 地理学报 71(9): 1653-1662.

Tao HY, Pan ZZ, Pan ML, Zhuo L, Xu Y, Lu M.2016.Mixing spatial-temporal transmission patterns of metropolis dengue fever:a case study of Guangzhou , China. Acta Geographica Sinica 71(9): 1653-1662.

77.         方，牛振国，许盼盼. 2016. 基于景观格局的常熟市地表热环境季节变化特征. 生态学杂志 35(12): 3404-3412.

Wang F, Niu ZG, Xu PP.2016.Seasonal variation of the surface thermal environment in Changshu City based on landscape pattern. Chinese Journal of Ecology 35(12): 3404-3412.

78.     王录仓，武荣伟，刘海猛，周  鹏，康江江. 2016. 县域尺度下中国人口老龄化的空间格局与区域差异. 地理科学进展 35(8): 921-931.

Wang LC, Wu RW, Liu HM, Zhou P, Kang JJ. 2016. Spatial patterns and regional differences of population ageing in China based on the county scale. Progress in Geography 35(8): 921-931.

79.     王录仓，武荣伟. 2016. 中国人口老龄化时空变化及成因探析-基于县域尺度的考察. 中国人口科学 2016(4): 74-84.

Wang LC, Wu RW. 2016. A study on spatial-temporal pattern of population ageing and its factors in China: based on county-scale examination. Chinese Journal of Population Science 2016(4): 74-84.

80.     王曼曼，吴秀芹，吴   斌，张宇清，董贵华. 2016. 盐池北部风沙区乡村聚落空间格局演变分析. 农业工程学报 32(8): 260-271.

Wang MM, Wu XQ, Wu B, Zhang YQ, Dong GH. 2016. Evolution analysis of spatial pattern of rural settlements in sandy area of northern Yanchi. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 32(8): 260-271.

81.     王少剑，王   洋，蔺雪芹，张虹鸥. 2016. 中国县域住宅价格的空间差异特征与影响机制. 地理学报 71(8): 1329-1342.

Wang SJ, Wang Y, Lin XQ, Zhang HO. 2016. Spatial differentiation patterns and influencing mechanism of housing prices in China: based on data of 2872 counties. Acta Geographica Sinica 71(8): 1329-1342.

82.        帅，刘士彬，段建波，戴   . 2016. OSDS注册用户空间分布特征及影响因素分析. 地球信息科学学报 18(10): 1332-1340.

Xie S, Liu SB, Duan JB, Dai Q. 2016. Spatial distribution characteristics of OSDS registered users and its influencing factors. Journal of Geo-information Science 18(10): 1332-1340.

83.        忍，刘彦随，龙花楼，王   洋，张怡筠. 2016. 中国村庄空间分布特征及空间优化重组解析. 地理科学 36(2): 170-179.

Yang R, Liu YS, Long HL, Wang Y, Zhang YJ. 2016. Spatial distribution characteristics and optimized reconstructing analysis of rural settlement in China. Scientia Geographica Sinica 36(2): 170-179.

84.        磊，武建军，贾瑞静，梁   念，张凤英，倪  永，刘  . 2016. 京津冀PM2.5时空分布特征及其污染风险因素. 环境科学研究 29(4): 483-493.

Zhou L, Wu JJ, Jia RJ, Liang N, Zhang FY, Ni Y, Liu M. 2016. Investigation of temporal-spatial characteristics and underlying risk factors of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area. Research of Environmental Sciences 29(4): 483-493.

# 2017

85.     Adegboye OA, Gayawan E, Hanna F. 2017. Spatial modelling of contribution of individual level risk factors for mortality from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Arabian Peninsula. PLoS ONE 12(7): e0181215.

86.     Benedetti R, Espa G, Taufer E. 2017. Model-based variance estimation in non-measurable spatial designs. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference 181: 52–61.

87.     Cao Z , Liu T, Li X, Wang J, Lin HL, Chen LL, Wu ZF, Ma WJ. 2017. Individual and interactive effects of socio-ecological factors on dengue fever at fine spatial scale: a geographical detector-based analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14: 795.

88.     Caulley L, Sawada M, Hinther K, Ko Y-t, Crowther JA, Kontorinis G. 2017. Geographic distribution of vestibular schwannomas in West Scotland between 2000-2015. PLoS ONE 12(5): e0175489.

89.     Chen H, Leinonen I, Marshall B, Taylor AJ. 2017. Conceptual spatial crop models for potato production. Advances in Animal Biosciences: Precision Agriculture (ECPA) 2017. 8(2): 678–683.

90.     Cheng SF, Lu F. 2017. A two-step method for missing spatio-temporal data reconstruction. ISRS International Journal of Geo-Information 6: 187.

91.     Dai YH, Zhou WX. 2017. Temporal and spatial correlation patterns of air pollutants in Chinese cities. PLoS ONE 12(8): e0182724.

92.     Du ZQ, Zhang XY, Xu XM, Zhang H, Wu ZT, Pang J. 2017. Quantifying influences of physiographic factors on temperate dryland vegetation, Northwest China. Scientific Reports 7: 40092.

93.     Fang YB, Wang LM, Ren ZP, Yang Y, Mou CF, Qu QS. 2017. Spatial heterogeneity of energy-related CO2 emission growth rates around the world and their determinants during 1990–2014. Energies 10: 367.

94.     Fu ZL, Zhou KC, Sun YJ, Han YT. 2017. Irregularly shaped cluster detection using a CPSO distribution-free spatial scan statistic. IEEE Access 5: 24863-24872.

95.     Gao BB, Lu AX, Pan YC, Huo LL, Gao YB, Li XL, Li SH, Chen ZY. 2017. Additional sampling layout optimization method for environmental quality grade classifications of farmland soil. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. DOI: 10.1109/JSTARS.2017.2753467.

96.     Gao H, Tang YW, Jiang LH, Li H, Ding HF. 2017. A novel unsupervised segmentation quality evaluation method for remote sensing images. Sensors 17: 2427.

97.     Ge EJ, Zhang RJ, Li DK, Wei XL, Wang XM, Lai PC. 2017. Estimating risks of inapparent avian exposure for human infection: avian influenza virus A (H7N9) in Zhejiang province, China. Scientific Reports 7: 40016.

98.     Goudzrzi S, Jozi SA, Monavari M, Karbasi A, Hasani H. 2017. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to nitrate pollution caused by agriculture practices. Water Quality Research Journal 7: 20.

99.     Gu H, Fan WJ, Liu K, Qin SW, Li XY, Jiang JM, Chen EF, Zhou YB, Jiang QW. 2017. Spatio-temporal variations of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers in Zhejiang Province, China from 2005 to 2015. Scientific Reports 7: 5780.

100.  Hellwig E, Hijmans RJ. 2017. Spatio-temporal variation in childhood growth in Nigeria: a comparison of aggregation and interpolation, International Journal of Digital Earth. DOI: 10.1080/17538947.2017.1330905.

101.  Hu Y, Xia CC, Li SZ, Ward MP, Luo C, Gao FH, Wang QZ, Zhang SQ, Zhang ZJ. 2017. Assessing environmental factors associated with regional schistosomiasis prevalence in Anhui Province, Peoples’ Republic of China using a geographical detector method. Infectious Diseases of Poverty 6: 87.

102.  Li J, Zhu ZW, Dong WJ. 2017. A new mean-extreme vector for the trends of temperature and precipitation over China during 1960–2013. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 129: 273–282.

103.  Li FZ, Zhang F, Li X, Wang P, Liang JH, Mei YT, Cheng WW, Qian Y. 2017. Spatiotemporal patterns of the use of urban green spaces and external factors contributing to their use in central Beijing. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14: 237.

104.  Li J, Zhu ZW, Dong WJ. 2017. A new mean-extreme vector for the trends of temperature and precipitation over China during 1960–2013. Meteorology Atmospheric Physics 129: 273–282.

105.  Liao YL, Xu B, Wang JF, Liu XC. 2017. A new method for assessing the risk of infectious disease outbreak. Scientific Reports 7: 40084. DOI: 10.1038/srep40084.

106.  Liao YL, Wang JF, Du W, Gao BB, Liu X, Chen G, Song XM, Zheng XY. 2017. Using spatial analysis to understand the spatial heterogeneity of disability employment in China. Transactions in GIS 21(4): 647–660.

107.  Liu YS, Yuan XM, Guo L, Huang YH, Zhang XL. 2017. Driving force analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution of flash floods in Sichuan province. Sustainability 9: 1527; doi: 10.3390/su9091527.

108.  Onozuka D, Hagihara A. 2017. Extreme temperature and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Japan: A nationwide, retrospective, observational study. Science of the Total Environment 575(2017): 258-264.

109.  Qiao PW, Lei M, Guo GH, Yang J, Zhou XY, Chen TB. 2017. Quantitative analysis of the factors influencing soil heavy metal lateral migration in rainfalls based on geographical detector software: a case study in Huanjiang County, China. Sustainability 9: 1227.

110.  Qiu BW, Lu DF, Tang ZH, Song DJ, Zeng YH, Wang ZZ, Chen CC, Chen N, Huang HY, Xu WM. 2017. Mapping cropping intensity trends in China during 1982-2013. Applied Geography 79: 212-222.

111.  Parada JAS. 2017. Modelos Econometricos Espaciales: Una Perspectiva Bayesiana. MS Thesis. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

112.  Penman BS, Gupta S, Shanks GD. 2017. Rapid mortality transition of Pacific Islands in the 19th century. Epidemiology and Infection 145: 1–11.

113.  Shrestha A, Luo W. 2017. An assessment of groundwater contamination in Central Valley aquifer, California using geodetector method. Annals of GIS 23: 149-166.

114.  Shrestha A, Luo W. 2017. Analysis of groundwater nitrate contamination in the central valley: comparison of the Geodetector Method, Principal Component Analysis and Geographically Weighted Regression. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 6: 297.

115.  Song YZ, Wang XY, Tan Y, Wu P, Sutrisna M, Cheng JCP, Hampson K. 2017. Trends and opportunities of BIM-GIS integration in the architecture, engineering and construction industry: a review from a spatio-temporal statistical perspective. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 6: 397.

116.  Strand G. 2017. A study of variance estimation methods for systematic spatial sampling. Spatial Statistics 21: 226-240.

117.  Tan JT, Lo K, Qiu FD, Liu WX, Li J, Zhang PY. 2017. Regional economic resilience: resistance and recoverability of resource-based cities during economic crises in northeast China. Sustainability 9: 2136.

118.  Tian L, Li YF, Yan YQ, Wang BY. 2017. Measuring urban sprawl and exploring the role planning plays: A Shanghai case study. Land Use Policy 67: 426-435.

119.  Wang JJ, Ma JJ, Liu JQ, Zeng D DJ, Song C, Cao ZD. 2017. Prevalence and risk factors of comorbidities among hypertensive patients in China. International Journal of Medical Sciences 14(3): 201-212.

120.  Wang Y, Wang SJ, Li GD, Zhang HG, Jin LX, Su YX, Wu KM. 2017. Identifying the determinants of housing prices in China using spatial regression and the geographical detector technique. Applied Geography 79: 26-36.

121.  Wang ZS, Yue Y, Li QQ, Nie K, Tu W, Liang S. 2017. Analyzing risk factors for fatality in urban traffic Crashes: a case study of Wuhan, China. Sustainability 9: 897; doi:10.3390/su9060897.

122.  Westerholt R, Resch B, Mocnik FB, Hoffmeister D. 2017. A statistical test on the local effects of spatially structured variance. International Journal of Geographical Information Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/13658816.2017.1402914.

123.  Wu C, Ye XY, Du QY, Luo P. 2017. Spatial effects of accessibility to parks on housing prices in Shenzhen, China. Habitat International 63: 45e54.

124.  Xiao QY, Liu HJ, Feldman MW. 2017. Tracking and predicting hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics in China by Baidu queries. Epidemiology and Infection 145(8): 1699-1707.

125.  Xu CD. 2017. Spatio-temporal pattern and risk factor analysis of hand, foot and mouth disease associated with under-five morbidity in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region of China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14: 416.

126.  Xu CD, Li YY, Wang JF, Xiao GX. 2017. Spatial-temporal detection of risk factors for bacillary dysentery in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, China. BMC Public Health 17: 743.

127.  Xu Q, Dong YX, Yang R. 2017. Influence of different geographical factors on carbon sink functions in the Pearl River Delta. Scientific Reports 7: 110.

128.  Yang SF, Hu SG, Li WD, Zhang CR, Torres JA. Spatiotemporal effects of main impact factors on residential land price in major cities of China. Sustainability 9: 2050.

129.  Yang Y, Wang LM, Cao Z, Mou CF, Shen L, Zhao JN, Fang YB. 2017. CO2 emissions from cement industry in China: a bottom-up estimation from factory to regional and national levels. Journal of Geographical Sciences 27(6): 711-730.

130.  Ye H, Hu XY, Qun R, Lin T, Li XH, Zhang GQ, Shi LY. 2017. Effect of urban micro-climatic regulation ability on public building energy usage carbon emission. Energy and Buildings 154: 553–559.

131.  Yuan XM, Liu YS, Huang YH, Tian FC. 2017. An approach to quality validation of large-scale data from the Chinese Flash Flood Survey and Evaluation (CFFSE). Natural Hazards 89(2): 1-12.

132.  Zhan DS, Kwan MP, Zhang WZ, Wang SJ, Yu JH. 2017. Spatiotemporal variations and driving factors of air pollution in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14: 1538.

133.  Zhang KS, Sun D, Shen SW, Zhu Y. 2017. Analyzing spatiotemporal congestion pattern on urban roads based on taxi GPS data. Journal of Transport and Land Use 10(1): 675-694.

134.  Zhao YJ, Deng QY, Lin Q, Cai CT. 2017. Quantitative analysis of the impacts of terrestrial environmental factors on precipitation variation over the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone in Coastal Southwest China. Scientific Reports 7: 44412.

135.  Zou B, Jiang XL, Duan XL, Zhao XG, Zhang J, Tang JW, Sun GQ. 2017. An integrated H-G scheme identifying areas for soil remediation and primary heavy metal contributors: a risk perspective. Scientific Reports 7: 341.

136.  毕硕本，凌德泉，计    晗，沈    香，王    . 2017. 郑洛地区史前聚落遗址人居环境宜居度指数模糊综合评价. 地理科学 37(6): 904-911.

Bi SB, Ling DQ, Ji Q, Shen X, Wang J. 2017. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of the human settlement environment of the prehistoric settlement sites in the Zhengzhou-Luoyang Area. Scientia Geographica Sinica 37(6): 904-911.

137.      超，马春光. 2017. 中国大宗商品期货交割库空间布局及影响因素. 地理科学 37(1): 125-129.

Chen C, Ma CG. 2017. Study of spatial distribution and influence elements of bulk commodity delivery warehouses. Scientia Geographica Sinica 37(1): 125-129.

138.      . 2017. 湖北省公路交通可达性空间格局演化及影响因素. 城市建筑 2017(8): 318-321.

Chen Q.2017. Spatial pattern evolution and influencing factors of highway traffic accessibility in Hubei Province. Urbanism and Architecture 2017(8): 318-321.

139.  陈晓玲，曾永年，柳文杰. 2017. 亚热带山地丘陵区气象要素空间化方法分析. 测绘与空间地理信息 40(12): 51-56.

Chen XL, Cao YN, Liu WJ. 2017. A comparative study of spatial interpolation methods for meteorological elements in subtropical mountainous and Hilly regions of China. Geomatics & Spatial Information Technology 40(12): 51-56.

140.      跃，刘振捷. 2017. 中国西部地区城镇化发展格局及影响因素研究. 世界农业 11: 227-231.

Chen Y, Liu ZJ. 2017. Study on the development pattern and influencing factors of urbanization in Western China. World Agriculture 2017(11): 227-231.

141.  蔡　进，廖和平，李　靖. 2017. 重庆市转户进城农户城市融入水平及影响因素研究. 西南大学学报（自然科学版）39(4): 108-114.

Cai J, Liao HP, Li J. 2017. Study on urban integration level and its influencing factors of former rural household farmers in Chongqing City. Journal of Southwest University(Natural Science Edition) 39(4): 108-114.

142.      愫，陈报章. 2017. 城市医疗设施空间分布合理性评估. 地球信息科学学报 19(2): 185-196.

Ding S, Chen BZ. 2017. Rationality assessment of the spatial distributions of urban medical facility. Journal of Geo-information Science 19(2): 185-196.

143.  董玉祥，徐    茜，杨    忍，徐成东，王钰莹. 2017. 基于地理探测器的中国陆地热带北界探讨. 地理学报 72(1): 135-147.

Dong YX, Xu Q, Yang R, Xu CD, Wang YY. 2017. Delineation of the northern border of the tropical zone of China’s mainland using Geodetector. Acta Geographica Sinica 72(1): 135-147.

144.  方叶兵，王礼茂，牟初夫，张   宏，屈秋实. 2017. 中国石油终端利用碳排放空间分异及影响因素. 资源科学 39(12): 2233-2246.

Fang YB, Wang LM, Mou CF, Zhang H, Qu QS. 2017. Determinants of spatial disparities of petroleum terminal utilization carbon emissions in China. Resources Science 39(12): 2233-2246.

145.  郜燕芳，刘东伟，刘华民，王立新. 2018. 大气污染与先天性心脏病关系的研究进展. 环境与职业医学 34(12): 1111-1122.

Gao YF, Liu DW, Liu HM, Wang LX. 2017. Research progress association between ambient air pollution and congenital heart disease. J Environ Occup Med 34(12): 1111-1122.

146.  郭春颖，施润和，周云云，张煊宜. 2017. 基于遥感与地理探测器的长江三角洲空气污染风险因子分析. 长江流域资源与环境 26(11): 1805-1814.

Guo CY, Shi RH, Zhou YY, Zhang XY. 2017. Analysis risk factors of air pollution over the Yangtze river delta using remote sensing and geographical detector. Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin 26(11): 1805-1814.

147.     坤，童艳丽. 2017. “四化”对水资源绿色效率的探测分析. 国土与自然资源研究 2017(4): 43-44.

Jiang K, Tong YL. 2017. The detection and analysis of the green efficiency of water resources by the “four modernizations”. Territory & Natural Resources Study 2017(4): 43-44.

148.     锐，李    新，马明国，葛    咏，刘绍民，肖   青，闻建光，赵   凯，辛晓平，冉有华，柳钦火，张仁华．地球科学进展32(6): 630-642.

Jin R, Li X, Ma MG, et al. 2017. Key methods and experiment verification for the validation of quantitative remote sensing products. Advances in Earth Science 32(6): 630-642.

149.  李方正，戴超兰，姚   北京林业大学学报 39(9): 91-101.

Li FZ, Dai CL, Yao P. 2017. Spatial-temporal pattern and causes of the use of community parks in central city of Beijing: an empirical study based on 58 parks. Journal of Beijing Forestry University 39(9): 91-101.

150.  李华威，万    . 2017. 小流域山洪灾害危险性分析之降雨指标选取的初步研究. 地球信息科学学报 19(3): 425-435.

Li HW, Wan Q. 2017. Study on rainfall index selection for hazard analysis of mountain torrents disaster of small watersheds. Journal of Geo-information Science 19(3): 425-435.

151.  李佳洺，陆大道，徐成东，李  扬，陈明星. 2017. 胡焕庸线两侧人口的空间分异性及其变化. 地理学报 72(1): 148-160.

Li JM, Lu DD, Xu CD, Li Y, Chen MX. 2017. Spatial heterogeneity and its changes of population on the two sides of Hu Line. Acta Geographica Sinica 72(1): 148-160.

152.      雯，陈    晋，陈文凯. 2017. 基于地理探测器的中国地震灾害人员死亡率影响因素分析.  Advances in Intelligent Systems Research (AISR), volume 152, Fifth Symposium of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Western China (WRARM 2017): 40-45.

Li W, Chen J, Chen WK. 2017. Analysis with geographical detector on the influencing factor of earthquake mortality in China.  Advances in Intelligent Systems Research (AISR), volume 152, Fifth Symposium of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Western China (WRARM 2017): 40-45.

153.      尧，张    . 2017. 亚洲小车蝗的多尺度分布格局. 中国科学院大学学报 34(3): 329-341.

Li Y, Zhang N. 2017. Muti-scale spatial distributions of Oedaleus decorus asiaticus. Journal of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences 34(3): 329-341.

154.      颖，冯    玉，彭    飞，陈树登．2017. 基于地理探测器的天津市生态用地格局演变经济地理. 12(37): 180-189.

Li Y, Feng Y, Peng F, Chen SD. 2017. Pattern evolvement of ecological land in Tianjin based on geodetector. Economic Geography 12(37): 180-189.

155.      雨，韩    平，任    东，罗    娜，王纪华. 2017. 基于地理探测器的农田土壤重金属影响因子分析. 中国农业科学 50(21): 4138-4148.

Li Y, Han P, Ren D, Luo N, Wang JH. 2017. Influence factor analysis of farmland soil heavy metal based on the geographical detector. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 50(21): 4138-4148

156.  刘吉平，马长迪，刘　雁，盛连喜. 2017. 基于地理探测器的沼泽湿地变化驱动因子定量分析——以小三江平原为例. 东北师大学报（自然科学版）49(2): 127-135.

Liu JP, Ma CD, Liu Y, Sheng LX. 2017. Quantitative study on the driving factors of marsh change based in geographical detector. Journal of Northeast Normal University(Natural Science Edition) 49(2): 127-135.

157.  刘鹏华，姚   尧，梁    昊，梁兆堂，张亚涛，王昊松. 2017. 耦合卡尔曼滤波和多层次聚类的中国PM2.5时空分布分析. 地球信息科学学报 19(4): 475-485.

Liu PH, Yao Y, Liang H, Liang ZT, Zhang YT, Wang HS. 2017. Analyzing spatiotemporal distribution of PM2.5 in China by integrating Kalman fiter and multi-level clustering. Journal of Geo-information Science 19(4): 475-485.

158.  刘彦随，李进涛. 2017. 中国县域农村贫困化分异机制的地理探测与优化决策. 地理学报 72(1): 161-173.

Liu YS, Li JT. 2017. Geographic detection and optimizing decision of the differentiation mechanism of rural poverty in China. Acta Geographica Sinica 72(1): 161-173.

159.      晨，蓝修婷，孙   . 2017. 理探测器方法下北京市人口空间格局变化与自然因素的关系研究. 自然资源学报 32(8): 1385-1397.

Lv C, Lan XT, Sun W. 2017. A study on the relationship between natural factors and population distribution in Beijing using Geographical detector. Journal of Natural Resources 32(8): 1385-1397.

160.  任国平，刘黎明，孙锦，卓东，袁承程. 2017. 基于“胞—链—形”分析的都市郊区村域空间发展模式识别与划分. 地理学报 72(12): 2147-2165.

Ren GP, Liu LM, Sun J, Zhuo D, Yuan CC. 2017. Using the “cell-chain-shape” method to identify and classify spatial development patterns of administrative villages in the metropolitan suburbs. Acta Geographica Sinica 72(12): 2147-2165.

161.  史婷婷，杨晓梅，蓝荣钦. 2017. 朝鲜人口统计数据空间化模拟及影响因子分析. 测绘科学技术学报 34(1): 79-84.

Shi TT, Yang XM, Lan RX. 2017. Spatial simulation and influence factors detection of population density in North Korea. Journal of Geomatics Science and Technology 34(1): 79-84.

162.  史婷婷，张小波，郭兰萍，王   慧，景志贤，黄璐琦. 2017. 地理环境因子对黄花蒿中青蒿酸含量空间分布影响的探测分析. 中国医药杂志42(22): 4282-4286.

Shi TT, Zhang XB, Guo LP, Wang H, Jing ZX, Huang LQ. 2017. Detection and analysis of effect of geographical environmental factors on spatial distribution of artemisinic acid in Artemisia annua. China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 42(22):.4282-4286.

163.      涛，程    艺，刘卫东，刘    . 2017. 中国边境地缘经济的空间差异及影响机制. 地理学报 72(10): 1731-1745.

Song T, Cheng Y, Liu WD, Liu H. 2017. The spatial disparity and impact mechanism of geo-economy in the border areas of China. Acta Geographica Sinica 72(10): 1731-1745.

164.  田俊峰，刘艳军，付占辉，王彬燕. 2017. 哈大巨型城市带要素集聚分异与空间极化格局. 人文地理 32(3): 117-123.

Tian JF, Liu YJ, Fu ZH, Wang BY. 2017. The differentiation of agglomeration degree and pattern of spatial polarization of the internal elements in the Ha-Da giant urban belt. Human Geography 32(3): 117-123.

165.      华，李武艳，朱从谋. 2017. 不同尺度城镇化水平特征差异性研究. 特区经济 347(11): 68-72.

Wang H, Li WY, Zhu CM. 2017. Study on the difference of urbanization on different scales. Special Zone Economy Issue 347(11): 68-72.

166.  王录仓，武荣伟，李    . 2017. 中国城市群人口老龄化时空格局. 地理学报 72(6): 1001-1016.

Wang LC, Wu RW, Li W. 2017. Spatial-temporal patterns of population aging on China’s urban agglomerations. Acta Geographica Sinica 72(6): 1001-1016.

167.  王琛智，张   朝，周脉耕，殷    鹏，陶福禄，金月雄. 2017. 低温对中国居民健康影响的空间差异性分析. 地球信息科学学报 19(3): 336-345.

Wang CZ, Zhang C, Zhou MG, Yin P, Tao FL, Jin YX. 2017. Analyzing the spatial differences of the relationships between low temperature and health risk in China. Journal of Geo-information Science 19(3): 336-345.

168.  王劲峰，徐成东. 2017. 地理探测器：原理与展望. 地理学报 72(1): 116-134.

Wang JF, Xu CD. 2017. Geodetector:Principle and prospective. Acta Geographica Sinica 72(1): 116-134.

169.  王楠楠，李俊明，段琳琼，陈常优，郜燕芳，樊鹏飞. 2017. 长三角和中原城市群城市扩张时空特征及驱动力比较研究. 河南大学学报（自然科学版）47(6): 681-692.

Wang NN, Li JM, Duan LX, Chen CY, Gao YF, Fan PF.2017. Comparative study on the urban sprawl and its driving force in two metropolitan areas,Yangtze river delta and central plains. Journal of Henan University(Natural Science) 47(6): 681-692.

170.  王向楠. 2017. 财产保险公司的地理扩张与利润. 地理学报 72(8): 1347-1360.

Wang XN. 2017. The geographical expansion and profit of property insurers. Acta Geographica Sinica 72(8): 1347-1360.

171.      浩，苑韶峰，杨丽霞. 2017. 浙江县域土地经济效益空间格局演变及驱动因素研究. 长江流域资源与环境 26(3): 341-349.

Xia H, Yuan SF, Yang LX. 2017. Evolution of spatial pattern of land economic benefit and its driving factors in Zhejiang Province on county scale. Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin 26(3): 341-349.

172.  徐维祥，杨    蕾，杨沛舟，黄明均，刘程军. 2017. 泛长三角生态创新的时空格局演变及形成机制. 浙江工业大学学报（社会科学版）16(2): 147-154.

Xu WX, Yang L, Yang PZ, Huang MJ, Liu CJ. 2017. On the temporal-spatial pattern evolution and its causes of eco-innovation in the Pan-Yangtze river delta region. Journal of Zhejiang University of Technology(Social Science) 16(2): 147-154.

173.      晶，胡茂桂，钟少颖，方    . 2017. 全国γ辐射剂量率空间分布差异影响机理研究. 地球信息科学学报 19(5): 625-634.

Yang J, Hu MG, Zhong SY, Fang Y. 2017. Influencing mechanism of spatial distribution difference in national γ radiation dose rate based on Geographical Detector. Journal of Geo-information Science 19(5): 625-634.

174.  翟召坤，卢善龙，王    萍，马丽娟，李    多，任玉玉，武胜利. 2017. 基于NSIDC海冰产品的FY北极海冰数据集优化. 地球信息科学学报 19(2): 143-151.

Zhai ZK, Lu SL, Wang P, Ma LJ, Li D, Ren YY, Wu SL. 2017. Optimization of FY arctic sea ice dataset based on NSIDC sea ice product. Journal of Geo-information Science 19(2): 143-151.

175.  张少尧，宋雪茜，邓    . 2017. 空间功能视角下的公共服务对房价的影响: 以成都市为例. 地理科学进展 36(8): 995-1005.

Zhang SY, Song XQ, Deng W. 2017. Impact of public services on housing prices in different functional spaces: a case study of metropolitan Chengdu. Progress in Geography 36(8): 995-1005.

176.  赵映慧，郭晶鹏，毛克彪，项亚楠，李怡函，韩家琪，吴   . 2017. 1949-2015 年中国典型自然灾害及粮食灾损特征. 地理学报 72(7): 1261-1276.

Zhao YH, Guo JP, Mao KB, Xiang YN, Li YH, Han JQ, Wu S. 2017. Spatio-temporal distribution of typical natural disasters and grain disaster losses in China form 1949 to 2015. Acta Geographica Sinica 72(7): 1261-1276.

177.  湛东升，张文忠，党云晓，戚    伟，刘倩倩. 2017. 中国流动人口的城市宜居性感知及其对定居意愿的影响. 地理科学进展 36(10): 1250-1259.

Zhan DS, Zhang WZ, Dang YX, Qi W, Liu QQ. 2017. Urban livability perception of migrants and its effects on settlement intention in China. Progress in Geography 36(10): 1250-1259.

178.  张小波，郭兰萍，邱智东，曲晓波，王   慧，景志贤，黄璐琦. 2017. 中国黄花蒿中青蒿素含量空间分布特征分析. 中国医药杂志42(22): 4277-4281.

Zhang XB, Guo LP, Qiu ZD, Qu XB, Wang H, Jing ZX, Huang LQ. 2017. Analysis of spatial distribution of artemisinin in artemisia annua in China. China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 42(22): 4277-4281.

179.  赵多平，王翠婷，曹兰州. 2017. 夏赴阿拉伯国家出境商务旅游影响因素及机理研究. 人文地理 2017(6): 146-153.

Zhao DP, Wang CT, Cao LZ. 2017. Research on influencing factors and mechanism of outbound business tourists from Ningxia to Arab countries. Human Geography 2017(6): 146-153.

180.      亮，周成虎，杨    帆，王    波，孙东琪. 2017. 2000-2011年中国PM2.5时空演化特征及驱动因素解析. 地理学报 72(11): 2079-2092.

Zhou L, Zhou CH, Yang F, Wang B, Sun DQ. 2017. Spatio-temporal evolution and the influencing factors of PM2.5 in China between 2000 and 2011. Acta Geographica Sinica 72(11): 2079-2092.

181.      湘，袁    文，李汉青，马明清，袁    . 2017. 北京市二手房价格时空演变特征. 地球信息科学学报 19(8): 1049-1059.

Zhou X, Yuan W, Li HQ, Ma MQ, Yuan W. 2017. Research on the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of the price of second-hand housing in Beijing. Journal of Geo-information Science 19(8): 1049-1059.

182.  邹　滨，许　珊，张　静. 2017. 土地利用视角空气污染空间分异的地理分析. 武汉大学学报 信息科学版 42(2): 216-222.

Zhou B, Xu S, Zhang J. 2017. Spatial variation analysis of urban air pollution using GIS: A land use perspective. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University 42(2): 216-222.

# 2018

183.  Cagliero L, Cerquitelli T, Chiusano S, Garza P, Attanasio A. 2018. Characterizing unpredictable patterns in Wireless Sensor Network data. Information Sciences 467: 149-162.

184.  Cang XZ, Luo W. 2018. Spatial association detector (SPADE). International Journal of Geographical Information Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/13658816.2018.1476693.

185.  Chen B, Song YM, Kwan MP, Huang B, Xu B. 2018. How do people in different places experience different levels of air pollution? Using worldwide Chinese as a lens. Environmental Pollution 238: 874-883.

186.  Chen GL, Luo J, Zhang CY, Jiang L, Tian LL, Chen GP. 2018. Characteristics and influencing factors of spatial differentiation of urban black and odorous waters in China. Sustainability 10: 4747.

187.  Cheng Z, Yang ZS, Gao HN, Tao H, Xu M. 2018. Does PPP matter to sustainable tourism development? an analysis of the spatial effect of the tourism PPP policy in China. Sustainability 10: 4058.

188.  Chien LC, Lin RT, Liao YQ, Sy FS, Pérez A. 2018. Surveillance on the endemic of Zika virus infection by meteorological factors in Colombia: a population-based spatial and temporal study. BMC Infectious Diseases 18: 180.

189.  Deka MA, Morshed N. 2018. Mapping disease transmission risk of Nipah Virus in South and Southeast Asia. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease 3: 57.

190.  Ding YT, Zhang M, Qian XY, Li CR, Chen S, Wang WW. 2018. Using the geographical detector technique to explore the impact of socioeconomic factors on PM2.5 concentrations in China. Journal of Cleaner Production. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.11.159

191.  Fei XF, Lou ZH, Christakos G, Ren ZQ, Liu QM, Lv XN. 2018. The association between heavy metal soil pollution and stomach cancer: a case study in Hangzhou City, China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-018-0113-0.

192.  Gao JB, Wang H, Zuo LY. 2018. Spatial gradient and quantitative attribution of karst soil erosion in Southwest China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 190: 730.

193.  Golkar F, Sabziparvar AA, Khanbilvardi R, Nazemosadat JM, Zand- Parsa S, Rezaei Y. 2018. Estimation of instantaneous air temperature using remote sensing data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 39(1): 258–275.

194.  He J, Christakos G, Wu J, Cazelles B, Qian Q, Mu D, et al. 2018. Spatiotemporal variation of the association between climate dynamics and HFRS outbreaks in Eastern China during 2005-2016 and its geographic determinants. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 12(6): e0006554.

195.  Hou YX, Zhao HF, Zhang Z, Wu KN. 2018. A novel method for predicting cadmium concentration in rice grain using genetic algorithm and back-propagation neural network based on soil properties. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3458-0.

196.  Hu XS, Xu HQ. 2018. A new remote sensing index for assessing the spatial heterogeneity in urban ecological quality: A case from Fuzhou City, China. Ecological Indicators 89: 11-21.

197.  Jiang QZ. 2018. The impact of perceived and observed food environments on fruit and vegetable consumption and obesity: a theory-based study among US older adults. PhD Dissertations 1249. University of Massachusetts Amherst. USA.

198.  Jiang XT, Wang Q, Li RR. 2018. Investigating factors affecting carbon emission in China and the USA: A perspective of stratified heterogeneity. Journal of Cleaner Production. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.160

199.  Kim YM, Tanaka K, Ge CZ. 2018. Estimating the provincial environmental Kuznets curve in China: a geographically weighted regression approach. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 32: 2147-2163.

200.  King MC, Staicu AM, Davis JM, Reich BJ, Eder B. 2018. A functional data analysis of spatiotemporal trends and variation in fine particulate matter. Atmospheric Environment. 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.04.001.

201.  Lan F, Wu Q, Zhou T, Da HL. 2018. Spatial effects of public service facilities accessibility on housing prices: A case study of Xi’an, China. Sustainability 10: 4503.

202.  Li DY, Liao YL. 2018. Spatial characteristics of heavy metals in street dust of coal railway transportation hubs: A case study in Yuanping, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15: 2662.

203.  Li XJ, Xin XZ, Peng ZQ, Zhang HL Yi CX, Li B. 2018. Analysis of the spatial variability of land surface variables for ET estimation: case study in HiWATER campaign. Remote Sensing 10: 91.

204.  Liao YL, Li DY, Zhang NX. 2018. Comparison of interpolation models for estimating heavy metals in soils under various spatial characteristics and sampling methods. Transactions in GIS. DOI: 10.1111/tgis.12319.

205.  Lin QG, Wang Y. 2018. Spatial and temporal analysis of a fatal landslide inventory in China from 1950 to 2016. Landslides. DOI 10.1007/s10346-018-1037-6.

206.  Liu J, Shanguan DH, Liu SY, Ding YJ. 2018. Evaluation and hydrological simulation of CMADS and CFSR reanalysis datasets in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Water 10: 513.

207.  Liu TJ, Wang JF, Xu Cheng, Ma JQ, Zhang HY, Xu CD. 2018. Sandwich mapping of rodent density in Jilin Province, China. Journal of Geographical Sciences 28(4): 445-458.

208.  Liu X, Macedo J, Zhou T, Shen LY, Liao YL, Zhou YL. 2018. Evaluation of the utility efficiency of subway stations based on spatial information from public social media. Habitat International 79:10-17.

209.  Liu XP, Chen X, Hua KP, Wang YJ, Wang P, Han XJ, Ye JY, Wen SQ. 2018. Effects of land use change on ecosystem services in arid area ecological migration. Chinese Geographical Science 28(5): 894–906.

210.  Liu YG, Huang CM, Wang Q, Luan JW, Ding MT. 2018. Assessment of sustainable livelihood and geographic detection of settlement sites in ethnically contiguous poverty-stricken areas in the Aba prefecture, China. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 7: 16.

211.  Liu YS, Yang ZS, Huang YYH, Liu CJ. 2018. Spatiotemporal evolution and driving factors of China’s flash flood disasters since 1949. Science China Earth Sciences 61, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-017-9238-7.

212.  Luo W, Hartman J, Wang F, Huang P, Sysamouth. 2018. GIS in comparative-historical linguistics research: Tai languages. Comprehensive Geographic Information Systems. 2016: 157-180.

213.  Luo W, Liu CC. 2018. Innovative landslide susceptibility mapping supported by geomorphon and geographical detector methods. Landslides 15: 465–474.

214.  Luz GR, Mota GS, Spadeto C, Tolentino GS, Fernandes GW, Nunes YRF. 2018. Regenerative potential of the soil seed bank along an elevation gradient of rupestrian grassland in southeastern Brazil. Botany 96: 281-298.

215.  Menafoglio A, Gaetani G, Secchi P. 2018. Random domain decompositions for object-oriented Kriging over complex domains. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00477-018-1596-z.

216.  Meng XY, Gao X, Li SY, Huang WJ, Lei JQ. 2018. . Geoscientific Model Development Discussions. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2018-274.

217.  Niu YN, Li RD, Qiu J, Xu XJ, Huang D, Qu YB. 2018. Geographical clustering and environmental determinants of Schistosomiasis from 2007 to 2012 in Jianghan Plain, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15: 1481.

218.  Nowosad J, Stepinski TF. 2018. Spatial association between regionalizations using the information-theoretical V-measure. International Journal of Geographical Information Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/13658816.2018.1511794.

219.  Qu YB, Jiang GH, Yang YT, Zheng QY, Li YL, Ma WQ. 2018.Habitat International 71: 135-146.

220.  Safa M, Soltani-Mohammadi. S. 2018. Distance function modeling in optimally locating additional boreholes. Spatial Statistics 23: 17–35.

221.  Shi H, Shi TG, Yang ZP, Wang Z, Han F, Wang CR. 2018. Effect of roads on ecological corridors used for wildlife movement in a natural heritage site. Sustainability 10: 2725.

222.  Shi SQ, Han Y, Yu WB, Cao YQ, Cai WM, Yang P, Wu WB, Yu QY. 2018. Spatio-temporal differences and factors influencing intensive cropland use in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. Journal of Geographical Sciences 28(11): 1626-1640.

223.  Shi TZ, Hu ZW, Shi Z, Guo L, Chen YY, Li QQ, Wu GF. 2018. Geo-detection of factors controlling spatial patterns of heavy metals in urban topsoil using multi-source data. Science of the Total Environment 643: 451459

224.  Shrestha A, Luo W. 2018. Assessment of groundwater nitrate pollution potential in central valley aquifer using Geodetector-based frequency ratio (GFR) and optimized-DRASTIC methods. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 7: 211.

225.  Song YZ, Wright G, Wu P, Thatcher D, McHugh T, Li DQ, Li SJ, Wang XY. 2018. Segment-based spatial analysis for assessing road infrastructure performance using monitoring observations and remote sensing data. Remote Sensing 10: 1696.

226.  Sun D Zhang KS, Shen SW. 2018. Analyzing spatiotemporal traffic line source emissions based on massive didi online car-hailing service data. Transportation Research Part D 62: 699714.

227.  Vallejos R, Buckley H, Case B, Acosta J, Ellison AM. 2018. Sensitivity of codispersion to noise and error in ecological and environmental data. Forests 9: 679.

228.  Wang CZ, Zhang Z, Zhou MG, Wang P, Yin P, Ye Wan, Zhang LY. 2018. Different response of human mortality to extreme temperatures (MoET) between rural and urban areas: A multi-scale study across China. Health and Place 50: 119-129.

229.  Wang J, Meng B, Fu DJ, Pei T, Xu CD. 2018. Mapping spatiotemporal patterns and multi-perspective analysis of the surface urban heat islands across 32 major cities in China. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 7: 207.

230.  Wang JF, Xu CD, Hu MG, Li QX, Yan ZW, Jones P. 2018. Global land surface air temperature dynamics since 1880. International Journal of Climatology 38: e466-e474.

231.  Wang JX, Hu MG, Zhang FS, Gao JB. 2018. Influential factors detection for surface water quality with geographical detectors in China. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00477-018-1532-2.3456789().,-volV)

232.  Wang LL, Lin YW, Wang XF, Xiao N, Xu YD, Li HD, Xu QS. 2018. A selective review and comparison for interval variable selection in spectroscopic modeling. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 172: 229–240.

233.  Wang LZ, Chen LJ. 2018. Analysis: The impact of new transportation modes on population distribution in Jing-Jin-Ji region of China. Scientific Data 5: 170104.

234.  Wang SG, Yu DX, Ma XG, Xing X. 2018. Analyzing urban traffic demand distribution and the correlation between traffic flow and the built environment based on detector data and POIs. European Transport Research Review 10: 50.

235.  Wang SJ, Wang JY, Wang Y. 2018. Effect of land prices on the spatial differentiation of housing prices: Evidence from cross-county analyses in China. Journal of Geographical Sciences 28(6): 725-740.

236.  Wang X, Gu L, Kwon TJ, Qiu TZ. 2018. A geostatistical investigation into the effective spatiotemporal coverage of road weather information systems in Alberta, Canada. Journal of Advanced Transportation. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5179694.

237.  Wang XF, Yin LC, Xiao FY, Zhang MN, Liu LL, Zhou ZX, Ao Y. 2018. The desertification process in the Silk Road Economic Belt in the past 15 years: A study using MODIS data and GIS analysis. Geological Journal 53(S1): 322331.

238.  Wang XN. 2018. Property insurance market analysis dataset in prefecture-level of China (2016). Journal of Global Change Data & Discovery 2(3): 316-322.

239.  Wang Y, Lin QG, Shi PJ. 2018. Spatial pattern and influencing factors of landslide casualty events. Journal of Geographical Sciences 28(3): 259-374.

240.  Wang Y, Wang LL, Qi PW, Liu ZH. 2018. The relationship and time elasticity between traffic location change and urbanization process: a case study of China’s Chongqing municipality. Journal of Spatial Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/14498596.2018.1479986.

241.  Westerholt R, Resch B, Mocnik FB, Hoffmeister D. 2018. A statistical test on the local effects of spatially structured variance. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 32(3): 571–600.

242.  Xia B, Dong SC, Ba DX, Li Y, Li FJ, Liu HM, Li ZH, Zhao MY. 2018. Research on the spatial differentiation and driving factors of tourism enterprises’ efficiency: Chinese scenic spots, travel agencies, and hotels. Sustainability 10: 901.

243.  Xu Q, Dong YX, Wang YY, Yang R, Xu CD. 2018. Determinants and identification of the northern boundary of China’s tropical zone. Journal of Geographical Sciences 28(1): 31-45.

244.  Xu QR, Zheng XQ, Zhang CX. 2018. Quantitative analysis of the determinants influencing urban expansion: a case study in Beijing, China. Sustainability 10: 1630.

245.  Xu X, Zhao Y, Zhang XL, Xia SY. 2018. Identifying the impacts of social, economic, and environmental factors on population aging in the Yangtze River delta using the geographical detector technique. Sustainability 10: 1528.

246.  Yang DY, Wang XM, Xu JH, Xu CD, Lu DB, Ye C, Wang ZJ, Bai L. 2018. Quantifying the influence of natural and socioeconomic factors and their interactive impact on PM2.5 pollution in China. Environmental Pollution 241: 475-483.

247.  Yang J, Zhou MG, Li MM, Yin P, Wang BG, Pilot E, Liu YN, van der Hoek W, van Asten L, Krafft T. Liu QY. 2018. Diurnal temperature range in relation to death from stroke in China. Environmental Research 164: 669-675.

248.  Yang WT, Deng M, Xu F, Wang H. 2018. Prediction of hourly PM2.5 using a space-time support vector regression model. Atmospheric Environment. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.03.015.

249.  Yaya S, Bishwajit G, Okonofua F, Uthman OA. 2018. Under five mortality patterns and associated maternal risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa: A multi-country analysis. PLoS ONE 13(10): e0205977.

250.  Ye H, Sun CG, Wang K, Zhang GQ, Lin T, Yan H. 2018. The role of urban function on road soil respiration responses. Ecological Indicators 85: 271275.

251.

252.  Yuan XF, Shao YJ, Wei XD, Hou R, Ying Y, Zhao YH. 2018. Study on the potential of cultivated land quality improvement based on a geological detector. Geological Journal 2018: 1-11.

253.  Yue XL, Wu SH, Huang M, Gao JB, Yin YH, Feng AQ, Gu XP. 2018. Spatial association between landslides and environmental factors over Guizhou Karst Plateau, China. Journal of Mountain Science 15(9): 1987-2000.

254.  Yun GL Zuo SD, Dai SQ, Song XD, Xu CD, Liao YL, Zhao PQ, Chang WY, Chen Q, Li YY, Tang JF, Wang M, Ren Y. 2018. Individual and interactive influences of anthropogenic and ecological factors on forest PM2.5 concentrations at an urban scale. Remote Sensing 2018(10): 521.

255.   Zhan DS, Kwan MP, Zhang WZ, Fan J, Yu JH. Dang YX. 2018. Assessment and determinants of satisfaction with urban livability in China. Cities.

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